The focus of our training sessions
The Specific Game Principles (SGP) are for us one of the central points that guide us in teaching the game and consequently in the development of our young players. In this way we are fully aware that this module 4 is fundamental in our learning, or content review (recycling) in this regard.
It is around these contents that we base all the teaching of the game in the initial phases of learning, mainly in the ages between 4 to 15 years. That is, it is at this stage that we teach and develop these principles so that later we can move onto some more complex models. However, and having nothing against these last mentioned challenges, we find that they do not make sense in SSA project as the main content of the training sessions, since the ages with which the coaches work with, and also the general level of the players, does not justify having these contents as main training objectives. However, we reinforce again, we accept that there are SSA, coaches and teams that may have, at some moment of the season, this type of approach in training.
Not stretching much more on the subject, we would like to start by talking about what football game really is and how it is developed in our children.
“THE FOOTBALL GAME HAS IN ITS NATURE THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN TWO COMPLEX SYSTEMS, THE TEAMS, AND IT'S CHARACTERIZED BY SUCCESSIVE ALTERNATION OF ORDER AND DISORDER STATES, STABILITY AND INSTABILITY, UNIFORMITY AND VARIETY” GARGANTA, 2001
DOES THE FOLLOWING IMAGE SHOWS A FOOTBALL GAME?
The knowledge of the Game internal logic and principles have important implications in the teaching and training plans and in the control of the players and teams performances.
In order to explain / teach the complexity of a football game to our players we must also try to "disassemble" the game in several parts so that the message is clearer for our players.
In this way it has been created, some time ago, by some well known names in Portuguese football, the simplification of the complex structure of the game.
This way of teaching the game allows to help the coaches and players to better understand the game and consequently to play it better. We have to assume that the action of a player in the game is strongly conditioned by the way he conceives and perceives the game.
In this way, how can we structure and organize the Game teaching, in order to develop intelligent and creative players?
“The simplification of the game complex structure, is a method that consists in reducing the complexity of the game structure into levels that, although more simple, don't misrepresent its fundamental nature” Queiroz, 1986
Thus began a process that allows to understand and teach the game in a simpler way, starting to divide the game into:
WITH BALL POSSESSION
PROGRESSION / FINISHING
MAINTAIN BALL POSSESSION
WITHOUT BALL POSSESSION
DEFEND THE GOAL
RECOVER BALL POSSESSION
HAVE INITIATIVE /SURPRISE FACTOR / CONTROL THE GAME
SIMPLE ACTIONS WITHOUT BALL
LARGER NUMBER OF TECHNIQUES TO RECOVER BALL POSSESSION
TECHNICALLY MORE DIFFICULT
DIFFICULTY TO CONTROL AND PROTECT THE BALL
INABILITY TO REACT TO SURPRISE
ANY FAILURE CAN LEAD TO CONCEDE A GOAL
CONSTRUCTION OF OFFENSIVE SITUATIONS (BUILD UP)
PREVENT THE CONSTRUCTION OFFENSIVE SITUATIONS
CREATE FINISHING SITUATIONS
AVOID THE CREATION OF FINISHING SITUATIONS
The game FORMS are the instruments that promote learning, development and improvement of the young players, at the level of the game PHASES.
Concerning the game FORMS we can have:
COMPLEMENTARY EXERCISES – ALL THE EXERCISES THAT DON'T INCLUDE FINISHING (GOAL)
FUNDAMENTAL EXERCISES – ALL THE EXERCISES WERE FINISHING IS THE FUNDAMENTAL GOAL TO REACH
GK+OFE X DEF+GK
OFE X DEF+GK
OFE X 0+GK
DIRECTION OF THE ATTACK
SPECIFIC GAME PRINCIPLES
Taking into account the various phases and forms of the game, we are now able to add one more fundamental element which is the basis for teaching football, the Specific Game Principles (SGP).
The SGP are BASIC RULES ACCORDING TO WHICH THE PLAYERS DIRECT AND COORDINATE THEIR INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE ACTIVITY DURING THE GAME PHASES Teodorescu
Starting from this definition we are able to begin to understand its importance for teaching the game to the young players.
We can divide the Principles into two categories:
Fundamental Principles - Are common to the different Game Phases and to the other principles, referring to spatial and numerical relationships between the players, in the areas of ball dispute.
Specific Principles - to know and know-how to implement the Game Principles is fundamentally based on the following game referentials: BALL, ADVERSARIES, GOAL, FIELD AND COLLEAGUES.
The game FACTORS are individual and collective actions (technical-tactical behaviors), in accordance with the game phases and forms, aimed at the applications of the specific game principles.
Taking into account all the introductory aspects previously presented, we will then discuss what matters most to our teaching and to our players in the final analysis - the Game Principles.
create numerical superiority
avoid numerical equality
refuse numerical inferiority
We will now begin to study each one of these principles. A first aspect that we have to take into account is that all principles have three important components: Objectives (we must know what each principle is for) Behaviors (we must know what we want to work in particular) and Technical-Tactical Actions (We need to know what is the support action for that behavior).